The Eastern Mole
LENGTH - 3 1/4 to 8 3/4"
WEIGHT - 3 to 5 oz.
BREEDING - Mates in February - March. They will have 1 litter per season. And can have 2 - 5 young. For my purposes. I figure an average of 3. With a gestation time of 30 to 42 days. I don't see juviniles in the surface tunnels, until around the first part of June to end of july. However adult moles will be up running the surface tunnels, as soon as the frost is out. A juvinale can be identified by its smaller bodysize. And there upper two front teeth have not erupted through the skin or are quit small. There is also a lack of a burnt orange tone or color to certain areas of the fur. As the Mole ages, a burnt orange color appears on head and shoulder area. there will also be a noticable strip of color running the lentgh of it. On the underneth side of the body.
FOOD SOURCE - The primary food source is the Earthworm. Even in sand. Moles are classified as an insectivore, and will eat a wide varitey of insects as well.
HABITAT - Just about anywhere they want. As long as there is an adequate amount of biomass. I have found Moles in a variety of soils. From black dirt to sand, and even in a heavier soil, like clay. I have found that as the density of the soil increases, the amount of moles per acre is reduced. Ground moister play's a big role as well. It will determine where they decide to establish there feeding tunnels. To dry. The available biomass is decreased and maintaining tunnels becomes difficult. To much moisture, the available biomass decreases. tunnels become difficult to maintain. And can flood, needed tunnels.
The moles territory can be quite exspansive. Can you imagine having a refrigirator large enough to contain. The food nessesary for you to consume, 85% to 100% of your body weight, every day. Not only does the mole have to consume that much food, it has no ability to store it. This is why territories will range from a 1/2 an acre. To 1 acre in size.
Moles will be more noticeable in moist ground rather than dry. This is because the Earthworm, goes deeper as the ground dries. This requires the mole to escavate deeper tunnels. And In some cases mounding will occure. In most cases the following will happen. The mole will return to explore other parts of it territory first, and if needed expand it through establishing new surface tunnels in an effort to feed. Leaving the digging of deeper tunnels as a last resort.